How can we make a survey of Wessagusset in 1622 or 1623? We can only do it in imagination, but as Morton made journeys through that town, we can best do it by going with him, and seeing in fancy what he saw. The course of procedure may be imaginative, but the descriptions are real, and taking the journeys with Morton gives them life.

On the trip up Back River, with the help of the young Indian, we were provided with a canoe, that being the easiest way to go tip the river and through the streams. Starting in the morning near the mouth of Back River, just around the point where Bradley's plant now stands, we set out on our expedition. With the Indian's skill in the use of the paddle we moved easily along on the surface of the river, with the densely wooded banks on each side.

It was a bright, clear day and the water was smooth. and skimming along ail nature was beautiful, and we seemed to be gliding on a river of Paradise. Sea birds were flying around us, the fish in the water beneath were swimming about, occasionally jumping out of the water for flies. We passed what is now Stoddard's Neck on the left, which was then well wooded, and the trees were reflected in the water, making what seemed like a beautiful underground island, and all around us there was the sweet stillness of nature, with a little harmonious sound that might be called the music: of the air. The river had become so wide that it was like a bay, and in after years ships came up there-

Onward still we glide in quiet and rhythmic motion, the river rounding around a little, and the canoe traveling in a sort of circle as we followed the river. We passed what is now Gillarn Hill, and bearing a little to the left we came to a place where an Indian trail led down to the river, and the Indians were accustomed to cross the river here in canoes. At this place in later years a bridge was built which was called London bridge by the earlier settlers, and in still later years the Hingham bridge, the Back River being (Ile of the boundaries between Weymouth and Hingham.

Back River in 1922 is still very beautiful, but in 1622 its beauty was far greater. It was a wild beauty, it is true, but it was the beauty of Nature, and nothing can surpass nature in loveliness.

Having passed the place where the bridge was built, we for a long time have on our left a region which is now occupied by the government naval station, but in the old days the public had access to this region, and it was full of Nature's attractions. On both sides of the river there were wonderful places for camping and fishing. One of these was called Aunt Nabby's Grove. To this




grove many of Weymouth's citizens came from time to time, as it was a most lovely place to spend the day in the shade of the trees on the river bank, and a most excellent spot for fishing.

But Aunt Nabby's Grove is cut off from the public, and the naval men have it all to themselves. We pass Beal's Cove on the left and Whale Island on the right, to which for many years the Whale Island Club came for pleitsure and rest, but as the government took pos.session of the island the club had to seek a new home, and they took possession of Burying Island in the Fore River, giving it the additional name of Whale Island. We pass by what was later the French estate where Mrs. Frederick T. Hunt now resides, but in spite of all the beauty of the river in these spots we niust skim along, passing where in later years Leonard had his wool scouring mill, and in time come to the falls.

The river was navigable as far as the falls, a distance of three miles from its mouth, and a smaller river or stream connects Back River with Whitman's Pond, called by the early settlers Fresh Pond. At the falls we had to carry the canoe around, but this was easy, as canoes are very light. After this the river was only a stream, but it led us into Whitman's Pond. Near here later was the Fulling Mill and the Weymouth Iron Works.

For a mile we paddled through this pond which is half a mile wide, then, through a continuation of the pond, till we ran into what was afterwards called Mill River. The journey through this pond was a very pleasing one, as the water was clear and pure, and it seemed to be embowered in woods, and made one think of the beautiful descriptions of lakes by some of our famous poets. Mill River winds around the fields and through marshes, and sometimes the banks were so near that we could almost reach out and touch them aswe passed. There is another river which empties into Whitman's Pond; this was called Old Swamp River, and is about three miles long and takes its rise in Hingham, but through this river we cannot go, as our journey is through Mill River to the Great Pond.

This river is seven miles long and formerly a quarter of a mile wide and makes a beautiful and romantic trip in a canoe. It winds around in curves at many places, and the meadows and marshes are cut in spots by little streams or creeks. If one has ever journeyed through some of the salt water creeks along our coast he can form some idea of what it was.

A good time to follow the course of Mill River in our day would be to take it in the winter time, when the ponds and river are frozen. With a pair of skates on, one could skate from the end of Whitman's Pond at East Weymouth, over the,pond and all through Mill River, and over Great Pond. This could have been easily done last winter, and the writer has taken part of the trip to refresh his memory.

The river is called Mill River because at several places mills were built during the history of Weymouth. The trip on the surface of the river was a inost interesting one to Morton and his

126 THE EARLY HISTORY OF WEYN10U'Itl

two companions, and Morton was so pleased that lie always bad something good to say about Weymouth.

The citizens of Weymouth to-day do not realize the many beautiful and interesting places to be seen, and in these days of automobiles it would be easy to journey over the town and get out where many of these wonderful things can be seen by walking. flow mane, for instance, have seen Fresh River, Marsh River, Old Swanip River, Soap House Swamp, Wigwam Hill, Ragged Plain, Huckleherrv Pond, judgment Valley, Puddle Meadow, Haunted Rock, Honey Hill, Lovers' Lane, and other places too many to mention here?

The canoe bearing Morton, Peddock and the Indian glided noiselessly along the river and passed into Great Pond. This take is a mile arid a half long, and about a mile wide. Around the pond they journeyed, curling the shore and enjoying the wonderful scenes of the wooded banks with the varied colors of the trees and beautiful stretch of water.

In the journey around the [)end they passed three islands, one of which was called Hawk Island because it was a great gathering place for hawks. On this island lived the IL-' Indian in Wrymouth, Aaron by name.

They saw several little streams that ran out of the lake which served as an outlet for the water, and later were utilized by the settlers for mill purposes. Fish were also plentiful in the pond, and iron ore was obtained from the bottom, and became an article of commerce. Having fully explored the pond they came to the entrance into Mill River, and started on the return journey, gliding along with pleasure through the fields and marshes, and looking off into the distance they saw a great deal of what is now South Weymouth, and at last coming to the first part of Whitman's Pond they left the canoe and walked up the bank for some distance through the trees to see one of the curious things in Weymouth.

This has been called Cavern Rock. This was a very large rock or cliff, almost like a house. It seems to have been a great ledge, arid at the time of the upheaval in the early days which caused an explosion, this rock was split or rent in two, and a large boulder that had been thrown up had fallen into the wide crevice or crack made by the explosion, holding the two parts of the ledge apart, thus forming a sort of chamber, or cave. On the outside the crack or crevice was narrower than the inside, and a man passing through this crack as though it were a door found himself in a rocky chamber with the sky and the boulder for a roof, arid all around him a rocky wall.

In our day people go to see this curiosity, and some call it the house in the rock, but the more common name is Cavern Rock. When a party goes to see it there is sometimes much merriment if there should be a very large, fat man in the company, for the entrance is so narrow that some fat men cannot get through, and it is arilusing to see them try, without success. Morton and his companions having seen this wonderful cave returned to the canoe




Itud took their journey back to the place where they started from, and they felt when they had reached the Weston settlement that they had become familiar with Wessagusset, and would not need to take any more journeys. It would be well if all the citizens of Weymouth should visit these places, as it would give them a greater love for their town.



We learn much about the region in which Weymouth is situated from Morton's book "The New Canaan," as lie tells us about the trees, shrubs, animals arid fish. People sometimes ask, what were the things in Weymouth in early days? Front Morton we learn that of trees there was an abundance of red and white oak, also cho, beech, walnut, chestnut, pine, cedar, cyprus, spruce, alder, 6irch, maple, elder, hawthorne. Of vines there were white, black and red plum trees, cherry trees, musk roses, sassafras, sarsaparilla, gooseberries, raspberries and other berries. Then there were potherbs, potima goram, thyme, Angelica, purslane, violets, aniseed, honeysuckle and baliti.

The fish in the river and bay in those days were cod, bass, mackerel, sturgeon, salmon, herring, eels, smelts, halibut, place hake, pickerel, lobster, oyster, mussels, clams, mussel cockles arid scallops. Bradford, in his history of Plymouth, mentions a river in Veymouth which he calls an alewife river. There are the herring Morton writes of, and the river was Back River and its tributaries. fit the early days the herring ran up the river and got up over the falls into Whitman's Pond, but mills were built on ~e river and a great one was called the Fulling Mill, which afterwards became !he plant of the Weymouth Iron Works.

In some way, because of these mills, the herring got stamped oil(, as they could not getup to the pond to spawn. Butabouttbe year 1700 the pond was restocked with herring, and by order of i lie town the mill owner had to make a passage so that the fish Could get up to Whitman's Pond to spawn. Since then the herring have been plentiful.

Morton also tells of the birds in Weymouth. There were swans, Reese, white and gray ducks, gray and black pied teals, both green-winged and blue-winged, widgeons, snipe, cranes, turkeys, pheasants, partridge quail, owls, crows, hawks, goshawks, martins, ~parhawks and sea ~Ulls.

Then, of animals, there were three kinds of deer, as elks, moose ;ind common deer. The Indians were in the habit of catching deer in fraps, and on one occasion Governor Bradford got caught in One of these traps. This was when he went on an expedition in 1621. There were wolves, beaver, otter, wild cat, martin, raccoon, fox, bear, porcupine, hedgehog, conyer, squirrels and flying squirrels, Illillacb and rattlesnakes.

(f stones there were chalk, slate, iron-stone granite and lead ore, black and red in color.





The geology of NVeymouth offers nothing spectacular; no cliffs or chasms, no mines or mountains diversify its Simple contours. A couple of pretty lakes, two small rivers, widening at their months into salt water harbors, a ledge or two of ancient granite, and a few of the rounded hills called drumlins make up its salient features. And yet if we take the trouble to study a little deeper, we shall find many things of geological interest.



The shape of the town of Weymouth is that of a long parallelogram, extending practically north and south, and the boundaries are artificial except in the northern third, where the two streams, the Fore River and the Back River, define the lines between Hingham and Weymouth on the east, and between Quincy and Braintree and Weymouth on the west. Both of these rivers, as far as they are town boundaries, are salt estuaries, and the fresh streams which run into them are small and are not navigable above tidewater.

The surface of Weymouth is a fairly level plain, relieved here and there by glacial hills or by ledges of rock; and there is a general slope to the north of about one hundred and ninety feet from the Abingtori-Rockland line to tidewnt2r The drumfiris, or glacial hills, of which King Oak Hill and Great Hill are the best examples (respectively, about one hundred and one hundred and fifty feet in height), are confined to the northern part of the town, and from the tops of these hills a good view of the level skyline is obtained, which proves the general flatness of the country. The southern half of the town is a flat plain, one hundred feet or more above the .sea level. A good growth of white pine, which favors sand plains for its locations, has always been a feature of the southern part of the town. There is no elevation in the town over two hundred feet.

Our two small rivers, the Mill River and the Old Swamp River, both running into and through Whitman's Pond into the Back River, are all that is left of the great glacial streams which once filled their valleys. The Back River, where it runs through East Weymouth, is famous for its herring fisheries. Front the earliest dates these rivers have furnished power for all kinds of mills.




c\ inmith has two bea tit ifu I ponds within its borders, -Great
I'mid, at the extreme southern end, and Whitman's Pond, near
ilik. Great Pond is the largest, and is of greater extent
timn nio.~t of the ponds in the surrounding towns. The shores are
\\,,(,dvd and picturesque, arid there is a pretty island in the middle,
If the contemplated driveway around the shoic is achieved it will
I)e ;,it added attraction to the town, even though boating and fishing
are ptobibited. The pond is the source of the town's water supply,
and bccatihe of the clarri at its northern end is of larger area thart
formerly. It is related that the late Mr. Quincy L. Reed tried for
a number of years to find an old road, of which there was a record,
on the tiestern side of the pond, and finally found traces of it six
feet under water, owing to the enlargement of the pond. Whitman's
Pond is even more picturesque arid pleasing than Great Pond,
owing to the hills and bold rocky ledges on its shares. Camp and
buligalOW sites have been developed here which are enjoyed bv
many summer visitors. This pond has furnished excellent water
power to the various East Weymouth industries for many years,
and, with Great Pond, an ample supply of ice for the town.


The geology of Weymouth is mainly concerned with two aspects, the underlying bedrock, and the surface covering of loose material, mostly glacial deposits.

The bedrock underlying the surface is of two kinds, slate in the northern part, and granite and similar rocks in the south. The boundary between these two areas is roughly along the line of the New Haven Railroad from the Weymouth station eastward. Inasmuch as the slates are known to be much older, geologically speaking, than the granites, it is logical to study them ~~-st. There are three kinds of slates represented in Weymouth. Of these, one, in North Weymouth at Mill Cove and Pearl Street, and another, in the railroad cuts near Weymouth Landing, belong to the Camhrian Period, but are quite distinct in character, while the third at Slate Island belongs to the much more recent Carboniferous Period.



The most northerly outcrop of rock on the mainland is at Mill CoNe and along Pearl Street, North Weymouth. The rock here e~posed is a purple slate very well shown around the shores of the (oNe, and extends eastward along Pearl Street to a point a few hundred feet beyond North Street. It consists for the most part of a redrli~li or purplish calcareous slate, with one or two thin beds of whice limestone up to two feet in thickness, arid an occasional bed of gray sandstone. The locality in which this slate is found is already well mantled with glacial drift, but Nature bas conveniently neglected to cover these few outcrops, though it is becoming so



(hickly settled that even now many of the outcrops are being ob~cured, and in a few years more most of them will be covered with buildings.

The slates are relatively soft and non-resistant to the weather, a condition which probably explains why they are not seen at more places where they are supposed to exist by logical inference. Along Pearl Street they are protected, "sheltered" so to speak, by the hard resistant "everlasting" granite, which outcrops only a few score of feet south of Pearl Street as high ledges. It has been estimated that there are about seven hundred feet of strata exposed in this vicinity. Professor Crosby measured the dip and ,,trike of these rocks and records them as follows: dip, 700 to 800 to the south; strike, N. 75' to 80' W. It is apparent, then, that these rocks, which, like all other sedimentary rocks, originated in a nearly horizontal position, have been tilted or folded until they are now practically vertical.

Many layers of the slate contain holes from half an inch to an inch across, occasionally larger, resembling eye sockets, formed by the weathering out of calcareous concretions. These are usually flattened so that when they are broken across they have the shape of an eye. Hence the name "eyed stones" for fragments of this kind of rock so frequently found in the gravel pits of the southern part of the town. These concretions are of similar formation to t lie clay dogs or clay stones of the beds of many of our larger rivers, [lie Connecticut, for instance. They occur so thickly in some places as to form a continuous band in the state. The state itself represents the fine limy mud which once formed the sea bottom of the ocean which covered this region in the early part of the Cambrian Period.

The only mineral which is conspicuous among the Mill Cove ~lates is epidote. It occurs in two principal modes: first, as a hit(], green, outer shelf about the fossil clay stones, and secondly, as a secondary mineral developed on slickensides, - surfaces along which the rocks have slipped and slid, the hear and pressure generated by this movement being sufficient to form new minerals, in this case epidote. Here the epiclote occurs as a striated green facing on the plane along which the rocks must have slipped. Frequently this movement is so intense that the rocks receive a mirror polish, well deserving the common name miner's mirrors. E-xaniples of this last type of epidote can be seen best at the outcrops along the north side of Pearl Street.

There is a low inconspicuous outcrop on Pearl Street scarcely ii,ing above the ground, opposite the home of the la-Z Richard A,h. This ledge is especially interesting from the fact that about 190k), tossils Of the Lower Cambrian Period, the most ancient of I lie fossil bearing periods, were here discovered. Mr. H. T. Burr, who found them, being then a student at Harvard, published an ~WC(unt of his discovery the same year (see Bibliography)- Since then no further investigations have been made until 1913, when a



Harvard party, while exploring tile same ledge, discovered a verv small trilobite entirely new to science. Professor Raymond, under whose direction the party was working, has described this little organism under the name of lVeymouthia nobilis. It should be noted that the name is out of all proportion to the size of the fossil, but it places the name of our town in the scientific literature for all time.

A list of the fossils that have been found at this locality follows. Of these the only ones that are by any means common are the Obolella, Holmia and Strenuella.









These trilobites were a race of small crab-like crawling creatures which lived in the mud along the shores, and were the scavengers of the Cambrian seas. Their shells were like those of the horseshoe crab in texture, and the impressions of them were well preserved in the fine mud. They ranged in size from a foot or more in length, such as the Paradoxides found over in Hayward's quarry in Braintree, down to the minute specimen above described, and form the subject of many erudite volumes in scientific libraries. Their heads were curved, or semi-circular in shape, and adapted to borrowing in the mud, and are the signs by which they are most easily recognized in the fossil state. The little specimen recently found and named of this large family of fossils is about the shape of a dumbbelt, and less than a quarter of an inch long- They all have their crab-like legs curled under them, so they rarely show in the impressions in slate, which are usually of their backs.



A second area of slate occurs in a well-defined but narrow belt stretching from tile Monatiquot River in Braintree eastward to the vicinity of King Oak Hill. This belt of slate is exposed only in a few localities, such as both banks of the Monatiquot River, the railroad cuts at Weymouth station and White's Neck (Idlewell), and one or two small cuts around the base of King Oak Hill. In all these places the slate is essentially the same. In contrast to the more massive purple slate of the Mill Cove area, this belt is composed of black fissile slates, which may readily be cleaved into very thin laminae. Most of the natural surfaces are stained with the inincral linionite, but this is a natural consequence in any rock A% Inch contains even a fraction of I per cent of iron, when exposed to tile weather. In addition to the eminent slaty cleavage, several subordinate directions of splitting are always present, so that it is

136 THE' GEOLOGY OF WEYMOUTH

impossible to obtain large stabs of thin state such as might be useful for roofing purposes. The innumerable cracks air'. c~revices in it provide ample spare for water, so that wells sunk into the slate are seldom dry; this is in contrast to the granite which occurs closely associated with the slate.

The most extensive exposure is in the cut at Weymouth station. This cot, about 1,050 feet long, is almost entirely in slate, bruL at the station end of the south side there is a minor amount of granite. The relation between the slate and the granite is what is called a fault; that is, the two kinds of rocks have been forced past each other, the granite moving upward and the slate slipping downward.

Air even more interesting cut has been bared where the railroad crosses White's Neck, under the bridge now leading to Idlewell. Here the state occurs in another long cut, associated with the granite under similar conditions. The granite here, though, is found at the eastern end of the cut, and the slate immediately adjoining the granite shows the effects of the contact with this intensely hot igneous rock, for it is bleached almost white and transformed into a crumbly, incoherent mass. Further from the granite the slate has been fractured, and great gaping fissures have been formed in it which must have been originally filled with intensely hot vapors from the contiguous molten granite. These vapors brought with them an abundance of silica in solution, which, when the granite and its vapors cooled, deposited the silica as the mineral quartz in the fissures. In almost every case the fissures, or veins, were completely filled by the quartz. The veins are very numerous, and of all sizes, from a fraction of an inch up to several feet wide. These veins are noticeable from the train windows as prominent white bands running down the sides of the cut.

From a mineralogical point of view the veins are extremely interesting, for they have yielded some very fine crystals. Appatently the veins were filled by the growth of quartz crystals on their walls, and as long as the vein remained not entirely filled, the free and perfect crystals stood out into the cavity. Most of the veins are filled entirely, and give up nothing but structureless masses of white quartz. Here and there a place can be found where the process of deposition was hatted before the veins were quite filled, for we find cavities up to a foot or so in diameter containing beautiful perfect crystals of quartz. Most of the available cavities have been explored, and their contents adorn collectors' cabinets all over the country. The largest collection of specimens from this locality is that of Mr. Clarence W. Fearing of South Weymouth, who was forturrate enough to have been on the ground when blasting was done in order to put a second track through the cut. During this operation Mr. Fearing gathered some fine crystals and crystal groups. None of these are of exceptional size, the largest I have seen being five inches long and three inches thick. Some of the specimens are of remarkable clearness, while others are clouded by the green mineral chlorite. All the crystals are of simple form, -




he,-1,Cnal prisms capped by bexagonai pyramids, with only here iwd there exceptional faces. It should be said, however, that the collector must not expect to find the crystals in perfect condition when they come from the rock. They are almost invariably coated with limonite, a mineral which is identical in composition with iron rust. This can be scraped off with a knife without much danger of damaging the crystals, for they are harder than the best .steel, but a better method of cleaning them is to soak them for a day or two in either weak hydrochloric acid or in concentrated oxalic acid, preferably tire latter. The acid dissolves the limonite but does not attack the quartz, so that the crystals become perfectly clean and free from stain. Large masses of the soft green granular mineral chlorite help to fill the veins, and Mr. Fearing has in his possession a single crystal of the rather rare mineral monazite from this cut. Monazite is used in the manufacture of Welsbach mantles for gas fighting.

North and east of King Oak Hill are a few small outcrops of this same slate, but its appearance and relations are substantially the same as in the other cuts.

The cuts on both sides of the road above and north of Washington Square are actually across the town line in Braintree, but they are so well known and often seen by Weymouth residents that they deserve mention here. The higher of these two cuts consists of three kinds of rocks, but they are all so deeply weathered and iron-stained that the difference can be made out only by careful study. Slate makes up the northern part of the cliff, granite the southern part, and in between is a dike of diabase, described below. These slates belong to the Middle Cambrian Period, and thus are slightly younger than the Mill Cove slates. No fossils have as yet been found in them.



The two islands in Boston Harbor belonging to the town of Weymouth are both characterized by slate. In each case it is a fine, soft, dark gray rock, extremely broken up by slaty cleavage and joint planes. Slate Island is almost wholly composed of slate ledges, while Grape Island, the remnant of a wave-torn drumlin, has small outcrops of slate on its northern and southern borders. The slate has no counterpart on the mainland of this town, but Professor Crosby concluded that it belonged to the same slate series as outcropped at Huit's Cove and Beat's Cove in Hingham. If this is so, then the Slate Island slate belongs to the Carboniferous Period, and is therefore millions of years younger than the Cambrian slates of the mainland. No fossils have been found in it yet.

This slate is extremely fissile, and besides is much contorted. Tire layers of slate are so closely bent that pieces broken at a right angle are occasionally met with, and these can be still further split. It is broken in so many directions that it is unsuited for roofing slates.

136 THE' GEOLOGY OF WEYMOUTH

impossible to obtain large stabs of thin state such as might be useful for roofing purposes. The innumerable cracks air'. c~revices in it provide ample spare for water, so that wells sunk into the slate are seldom dry; this is in contrast to the granite which occurs closely associated with the slate.

The most extensive exposure is in the cut at Weymouth station. This cot, about 1,050 feet long, is almost entirely in slate, bruL at the station end of the south side there is a minor amount of granite. The relation between the slate and the granite is what is called a fault; that is, the two kinds of rocks have been forced past each other, the granite moving upward and the slate slipping downward.

Air even more interesting cut has been bared where the railroad crosses White's Neck, under the bridge now leading to Idlewell. Here the state occurs in another long cut, associated with the granite under similar conditions. The granite here, though, is found at the eastern end of the cut, and the slate immediately adjoining the granite shows the effects of the contact with this intensely hot igneous rock, for it is bleached almost white and transformed into a crumbly, incoherent mass. Further from the granite the slate has been fractured, and great gaping fissures have been formed in it which must have been originally filled with intensely hot vapors from the contiguous molten granite. These vapors brought with them an abundance of silica in solution, which, when the granite and its vapors cooled, deposited the silica as the mineral quartz in the fissures. In almost every case the fissures, or veins, were completely filled by the quartz. The veins are very numerous, and of all sizes, from a fraction of an inch up to several feet wide. These veins are noticeable from the train windows as prominent white bands running down the sides of the cut.

From a mineralogical point of view the veins are extremely interesting, for they have yielded some very fine crystals. Appatently the veins were filled by the growth of quartz crystals on their walls, and as long as the vein remained not entirely filled, the free and perfect crystals stood out into the cavity. Most of the veins are filled entirely, and give up nothing but structureless masses of white quartz. Here and there a place can be found where the process of deposition was hatted before the veins were quite filled, for we find cavities up to a foot or so in diameter containing beautiful perfect crystals of quartz. Most of the available cavities have been explored, and their contents adorn collectors' cabinets all over the country. The largest collection of specimens from this locality is that of Mr. Clarence W. Fearing of South Weymouth, who was forturrate enough to have been on the ground when blasting was done in order to put a second track through the cut. During this operation Mr. Fearing gathered some fine crystals and crystal groups. None of these are of exceptional size, the largest I have seen being five inches long and three inches thick. Some of the specimens are of remarkable clearness, while others are clouded by the green mineral chlorite. All the crystals are of simple form, -




he,-1,Cnal prisms capped by bexagonai pyramids, with only here iwd there exceptional faces. It should be said, however, that the collector must not expect to find the crystals in perfect condition when they come from the rock. They are almost invariably coated with limonite, a mineral which is identical in composition with iron rust. This can be scraped off with a knife without much danger of damaging the crystals, for they are harder than the best .steel, but a better method of cleaning them is to soak them for a day or two in either weak hydrochloric acid or in concentrated oxalic acid, preferably tire latter. The acid dissolves the limonite but does not attack the quartz, so that the crystals become perfectly clean and free from stain. Large masses of the soft green granular mineral chlorite help to fill the veins, and Mr. Fearing has in his possession a single crystal of the rather rare mineral monazite from this cut. Monazite is used in the manufacture of Welsbach mantles for gas fighting.

North and east of King Oak Hill are a few small outcrops of this same slate, but its appearance and relations are substantially the same as in the other cuts.

The cuts on both sides of the road above and north of Washington Square are actually across the town line in Braintree, but they are so well known and often seen by Weymouth residents that they deserve mention here. The higher of these two cuts consists of three kinds of rocks, but they are all so deeply weathered and iron-stained that the difference can be made out only by careful study. Slate makes up the northern part of the cliff, granite the southern part, and in between is a dike of diabase, described below. These slates belong to the Middle Cambrian Period, and thus are slightly younger than the Mill Cove slates. No fossils have as yet been found in them.



The two islands in Boston Harbor belonging to the town of Weymouth are both characterized by slate. In each case it is a fine, soft, dark gray rock, extremely broken up by slaty cleavage and joint planes. Slate Island is almost wholly composed of slate ledges, while Grape Island, the remnant of a wave-torn drumlin, has small outcrops of slate on its northern and southern borders. The slate has no counterpart on the mainland of this town, but Professor Crosby concluded that it belonged to the same slate series as outcropped at Huit's Cove and Beat's Cove in Hingham. If this is so, then the Slate Island slate belongs to the Carboniferous Period, and is therefore millions of years younger than the Cambrian slates of the mainland. No fossils have been found in it yet.

This slate is extremely fissile, and besides is much contorted. Tire layers of slate are so closely bent that pieces broken at a right angle are occasionally met with, and these can be still further split. It is broken in so many directions that it is unsuited for roofing slates.

ic slate, and in all parts of 3 from a few inches wide up st figure is exceptional, and wide. Since these dikes cut flows that they must have rocks were formed. With ~k trap rock belonged to the red sandstones of the ConA and reptiles fifty feet in i flows interrupted the me-


ge as a wide band of another
er being forced up from the
splendid example of a dike
iough I hear it is shortly to
try to fifty feet wide can be
rossing the Bay State Street
~hest point between Middle
at smaller dike crosses the
This one is remarkable for
ick is quite dark, and con
ise feldspar crystals, which
; difficult, however, to free
"st dike in Weymouth may
~ just north of Washington
iintree. Although this is in
is large dike, which may be
,ymouth.

-ap rock, there are a great _)f aplite of which the scamwhite or gray, never more te out from the main aplite made of practically nothing mple of this type of dike is of granite in front of the


England towns, Weymouth d deposit, and its hills and nately to that cause. Prior the boil was much like that ar glaciated. The great iceard from the wilderness of he virgin soil of the previous posits of boulders and clay,




or gravel and sand, from its rushing streams. It rounded and smoothed off the rock ledges, and cracked off and carried away detached pieces. Such pieces of rock, worn smooth somewhat during their journey as glacial freight, are now strewn across our countryside, for the most part covered by later outwashings from the glacial streams. These boulders as a rule occur in connection with what our farmers call yellow dirt. or hard pan, a io~_~ture compo~ed mostly of clay and boulders compacted into a hard substance 1,y the weight of the ice which rode over it. This combination has iriade farming a difficult process, and has been the origin, too, of most of the mileage of stone walls, made from these glacial boulders with which the fields were covered, in some cases so thickly that plowing was impossible until they were removed.

Two very interesting specimens of ledges worn and polished by glacial action are to be seen, one at the junction of Main and Winter Streets, continuing across Front Street to a point just north of the Reed Cemetery, and another near the East Weymouth car barn. We must not forget to mention the fine view of polished ledges on a grand scale which can be seen from Pleasant Street looking eastward, especially from the rear of the Pratt Schoolhouse.

Boulders. -When the ice melted, it was forced to drop all the boulders and finer material which it carried. Occasionally, when the ice was carrying particularly large boulders, these have bee

left stranded, so to speak, far from their parent ledge. The be t example of these stranded boulders - erratics, as they are called in geology - is House Rock, just east of Essex Street and south of Broad Street. Of this boulder Professor Crosby notes that it rests upon a northward sloping and distinctly glaciated ledge of granite. It is therefore a true erratic, and not in any sense a residuary mass. Viewed from the northeast the boulder presents a rather striking profile, first noted by Mr. John J. Loud, which has caused it to be known locally as the Weymouth Sphinx (House Rock is the more generally used name). The maximum horizontal dimensions of the boulder are: north side, thirty-seven feet; east side, twenty-five feet; south side, forty-two feet; west side, fortytwo feet. Its circumference six feet above the ground is one hundred and twenty-six feet. In volume House Rock must approximate a cube tbirty-five feet on an edge, or over forty thousand cubic feet. At one hundred and seventy pounds per cubic foot the weight is about three thousand five hundred tons. It is thus nearly half as large as the great Madison boulder of New Hampshire. This is an undoubted glacial erratic, and the probabilities are very great that it is not far traveled; in fact, the parent ledge is quite certainly one of the group of ledges on the west side of Essex Street on the north side of the almshouse, and the rock is now probably between one-half and three-quarters of a mile from its birthplace.

Another notable stranded boulder is the Perched Rock, which stands on a ledge of granite off Park Street, near the Ifinghain


138

If Ave draw a lin Last Wevniouth b into Iwo parls, - much lalger part.

tween the relative apparent, since th always subdued w makes high precipi To be granite, ~ quartz and orthoc one or more of a g are inica and hot,, the hornblende va some muscovite 0 these varieties Of t' Technically, this

stretches from be3 far from homoge"

In the main, th The mostabunda color which even successfully as a bility, one or bot as the Indiana lit the Milford grani neither of these ( is a variety callethird red to pinL pleasant soft toin variety of granitc never seen such

abundant in Abi tractive building

There is one 0 This is the scam tensively quarri even more so ac The feature to m as a building stoi These joints, or

apart, thus divi( quarried. The I be used as huildi fine and smooth This solid color, no detchrient, li,



ill often beautiful types of boulders arid pebbles in the Porphyry, greenstone, quartz, purple and green slate, its of puddingstone, and occasionally a beautifully (let of red sandstone or amygdaloid may be the reort search. A veritable collection in a nutshell of all rocks existing for, say, twenty miles to the north of o, are often found good specimens of the eyed stones, of origin is the ledge of slates around Mill Cove.

A third type of stratified drift is that technically mes. These are hills of more or less irregular shape, pproximating a conical form. Three beautiful examples be seen just over the town line south of High Street. al occur in close proximity, as east of Pleasant Street Washington Street, they give a very pleasant variety graphy, which has frequently earned for them the ame of dumpling hills.




mic aspect of a town's geology is to some of us the ant aspect. The resources of Weymouth in this line ed chiefly of building stone from the granite ledges, in the glacial till for its stone walls, gravel from the t deposits, and, early in our history, bog iron ore from of our ponds. Of all these, granite of the seam-face nly one which has been sent outside the town to any


The only kind of granite which has become of comrtance is the seam-face granite of Washington Street. n described on page 138 above. The seam-face stone is ortance to Hingham than to Weymouth, because the re which makes for easy quarrying is better developed Weymouth. Only one quarry is active now in this the development of these granite quarries a score or go there has sprung up a substantial demand for this ne in many sections of the country.

re. - In the early days New England manufactured her iron from the deposits of bog iron ore (limonite) ound in the swamps and ponds. This is a yellow or al which usually forms an encrusting mass upon the r stones on the bottom of streams and ponds, whence e pulled up by means of long rakes. It occasionally from layer of swamps. When the vegetable matter It the mineral gathered decays, the limonite is left as king mass, which is its usual appearance. It has its iron contained in small quantities in the rocks of this hence dissolved in the stream waters. In solution in iron is in the form of iron carbonate (FeCO,). This iistable in waters which are being evatiorated, and




under u(h conditions loses its carbon dioxide (CO,), leaving

o%ide (FcO). This compound, again, is not stable in the presi of vater, but "rusts" readily by the addition of both oxygen and water (H,O) to form the mineral limonite (2Fe-.,O,.3H,0) bog iron ore. This industry was sufficiently large to supply inhabitants of New England with iron for a considerable t. ceasing only when it became more profitable to import the

Michigan ores- The record of the existence of numerous fo and furnaces all over the town proves how large a quantity of ore was extracted from the ponds by our forefathers.

Mr. joy has kindly furnished me with the following memom concerning the early state of the iron industry in Weymouth:


In 1771 iron ore in sufficient quantity to pay well for gathering was fom i lie ponds of the town, and a contract was made with Thomas Hobart I of A ton, by a public safe, for the ore found in Great Pond at 40 shillings per ton, an agreement to defend him against any claims for damages that might bi vanced by other parties. A committee was also chosen by the town to pros, i ny others who should be found taking ore frorn this Pond. This contract rearl i~i force until May, 1773, when a lease was given to Mr. Hobart for thirty ~ at C60 per year, for the privilege of taking ore from all the poncti of "7eym,

In 1806 the town agreed to let Thomas Hobart of Pernbrook (Jig one hun and fifty tons of iron from Weymouth Great Pond, for 3 shillings per ton,

is in the pond.

]it 1807 there was an account of iron ore dug out of Great Pond by if Loins and Samuel Reed.

In 1809, September 2, Mr. Stetson was granted permission to dig ten to iron front Great Pond for 60 cents per ton.


Sand and Gravel. - Probably the one resource which has brot the most profit, with the possible exception of bog iron ore, is series of gravel pits widely scattered over the town. Scarcely depositof modified drift has escaped beingduginto, either tofur road material, or grading for houses. To list the gravel pits i~ advisable, for while some of the larger pits will continue to fur gravel for years to come, the usual procedure is to abandon a lialf dug in favor of a new pit closer to the place where the gr is needed. Because of their height, eskers are more freque used than gravel plain deposits, probably because of the eas digging and loading.

Attempts have been made recently to use sand from these e deposits in the making of cement, but these have not yet I highly successful, as the best quality of cement requires a - whose grains are angular in shape, while most of the sand gr of our eskers are more or less rounded and water-worn.

Field Boulders. - In the early days the building of stone v L oniposed of these boulders served two purposes, - the pro , leared the land and made farming easier, and saved the led Libor of splitting out fence rails. Some of the lower stories in I! walls were dug out from the fields where they were buried a foc



I Ill THE (;fOW(;V 01: WFY)IOUT11

more under the surface, for whose holders they were used in fencing. The farmers used to take special days with oxen and stone boat to lielp build each odier', walls, and the boys were employed ill picking up the smaller stones to fill in at the top. These picturesque and faniih;ir features of the New England landscape are fast disappearing from our more thickly settled communities. These boulders were idso very useful in the building of cellar walls, for they saved the Cutting Of foundation stones, or the bringing of cut stone from it distance. These little rounded pasture boulders have certainly been of economic value to all the New England towns in the past.

Cla ' i, and Lime. - Neither of these two raw materials, essential
(or building with brick, occurs in appreciable quantities. The
chinineys of the earliest houses were built of brick brought from
near-by towns (perhaps Bridgewater, where there were brickyards
front the earliest times), and mortar, whose lime was obtained from
seashells pounded Lip on the beach. The beds of limestone at Mill
Cove are too thin to be of any use.

Petit. -A small amount of peat has in times past been cut and burned here, but it was never much used, nor economical as it fuel. New methods of cutting, drying and compressing the peat inay ultimately make the peat of value, though the possibility is reniote. It occurs in the swamps along both Mill and Old Swamp Rivers.

Injustirial &Irth. - This fine white powder, composed of the microscopic skeletons of minute unicellular plants called diatoms, is touch used its it polishing powder on account of its excessive hardocs6 and finenes~. Mr. Fearing found a thin bed of this material in the easement ditch not far from the station at South Weymouth. It is likely to occur in connection with any fresh-water deposits, .111A its our sands and peat.




It has occurred to me that the average visitor or citizen in Weymonth sees the geology of the town only as he traverses the highl%ays. So it seems a good plan to give a brief sketch of what is to be seen along some of the principal highways. We will select for our first trill the route from Washington Square by the old turnpike, now Main Street, to South Weymouth, returning by way of I'leasaw Street and Fast Weymouth.

Main Street. - Starting from Washington Square and going south oil the State road tip the hill, we are leaving the slate area behind its, and are entering into the granite country, which everywhere is higher than the much less resistant slate area. Hence the rise of about oil(! hundred feet to the top of the hill. Halfway up, an(] back of the Weston property, one may see a very good esker. with steep sides and a serpentine form. Numerous outcrops of gtainte occur oil both sides of the road, especially on the left near the top of the hill. When the summit is reached, above Lincoln








1(%v (if cedars on its crest,- a characteristic
ko it issoon lost tosightin thewoods, reappearing
it, it, viticritine course on Winter Street, and especi
\o,tio Tirrell Farm, and finally ending in the gravel

Continuing up Main Street there is nothing ninil Nxt. arrive at the juriction of Main and Winter

ill,- northwest corner of these crossroads, and about t t,(.t from thesame, there isa ratherextensive flatoutcro lo\C1cd by a network of ridges an inch or two wide a

high. These are most1v veins of quartz or of aplite gor ,if which are more resistant than the granite itself,

gianite meathers away, leaving the other material in rel ,outliwesL angle of the crossroads and westward id

Strect the polished ledges referred to on page 141 are fou irc Of coarse granite, but they will be seen to include

,if aplite, which is white in color and of finer grain, so t .1 bet ter polish than the coarser granite. If possible, it

one to study the ledges off Front Street, just north Lit Cemetery, Only a few hundred feet away. In the opposit .1 'hort I Lip tip Winter Street will bring us to a cut acre, " hich if we could walk along it would prove to be the N~ hit It we saw a half-mile back at the fork.

I tescentling into the valley of the Mill River we must ,mail the river appears when compared with the wi %,illc) . We should remember that the valley was once hiiin xxiih the stream swollen by waters from the gre 111INNIall of the glacial period. just before we reach th IM" it gravel pit dug into our esker, which is here somew-h in form. The steep hill we now ascend up to Stetson' Oally ;in ice contact hill, where the ice front of the glaci nant for a while, and from which poured out southward t I In i ing sand and pebbles which made the gravelly pl

ilic top of the hill. Ice contacts are usually very steep, ha\c time to make it side trip along Middle Street,

Illd ()0 UH estate, we may seeas good an ice contactshi i, it, (lie town along the path which runs to Whortleb Hii, 1,)I)e rises up very steeply to the right of (lie

liald il~elf (ccupies the low ground Josse) which wits dil. ill, Incited, and isall thatisleftof aoreemoreexten plod; i\hiluaboveand tothesouthof thecontactisag -111.111 wn\\a~h plain on which was deposited the sands

;icil lait from the glacier when it lay up against this

llin,t~ back to the turnpike we travel for about three 1)lil( It, Valk Avenue between two very different kinds )11 till IL-11 we get glimpses of the rocky [edge called "T

149 THE GEOLOGY OF wEN"mou,rlt

while oil tire right we see tire wide flat bed of the ancient Mill River. Mr. Fearing has told me of finding evidences of th~ original bed of the river on his land, showing that the river once filled the lowlands Dearly as far eastward as Main Street. At Park Avenue the land begins to rise again, and if we look off to the left we can see a very steep slope crossing both Torrey Street and Tower Avenue. This is another ice contact slope, and a small stream runs at the bottom of it. From Columbian Street to the Abington line there is very little to mention.

Pond Street. - Returning, let us take Pond Street and Pleasant Street to East Weymouth. Pond Street is situated upon Pond Plain, a sand and gravel plain bordering Great Pond. It is worth while, if one has time to walk down through the woods to the pond. From the point where Oakden Road joins Pond Street there is plainly visible a small esker rising sharply from the plain, and, at present, it has a fringe of pines along its crest.

Pleasant Street. - Little more of geological interest can be seen until we have crossed Columbian Square. The road soon begins to descend rapidly where it crosses the ice contact up over which we passed on Main Street below Columbian Street. At Park Avenue we come down on to a sand plain again. This is well developed on both sides of the Old Swamp River, and doubtless represents the old flood plain of that stream before it shrunk to its present size. A side trip up Park Street gives a very instructive view of an old glacial delta, just east of the Old Swamp River, over which once ran torrents of icy water bearing di6bris from the fading glacier which must have lain to the northeast. At present the billowy form of the tongued delta front can be well seen. Halfway up the hill, and on the left, one of the old water channels shows a very remarkable fresh gully which was developed practically in its present dimensions by a single day's rainstorm about two years ago. The gully at its largest part is twenty-one feet wide and seven feet deep. When we think of what one single storm may accomplish it does not require much imagination to picture the removal of the entire hill by repetitions of such an occurrence, and from that it is but a step to understand how all entire region may be worn down from a mountainous condition to a flat region like our own to-day. We can either retrace our steps or continue tip the hill to the top of the level delta plain at and beyond Pine Street. There are a few sand pits south of the crossroads which show excellently well the steeply inclined forebet beds of the delta. These beds indicate the slope over which the waters ran, dropping their load as they went. Going north toward Pleasant Street we soon come to the cemetery, built on assorted drift, again, and their begin to descend the delta front on to the Pleasant Street sand plain by Oak Street.

Starting again on Pleasant Street at Park Avenue, we catch glimpses every now and again of the graceful slopes of the delta front just described, off to the right. Scattering outcrops of granite




CIII all along Pleasant Street; One of tile largest of these is the lolgi- on the west side of the Fair Grounds. It soon becomes appalent, though, that there is a continuous mass of rocks off to the xlu,i. rhis is "The Rocks," seen from the east. "The Rocks" con.,lifute a wild rocky tract occupying most of the space between Main Street, Park Avenue and Pleasant Street, and are bounded (,it tile north by Middle Street and the Old Swamp River. It is inade up mostly of grainte, and contains many things of interest, - dikes of black trap rack and of aplite, many cliffs and perched houldeis, and several high points of rock front which splendid x tews of the surrounding country may be obtained. One of the best cliffs in this area may be seen from the vicinity of the Oak Street turnout on Pleasant Street. A nearly vertical cliff of granite i1bout thirty feet high stands out in bold relief against the lowll~iog area to the north. This cliff marks the location of a fault in I lie I ocks, - a plane where the rocks have actually moved. In this case the north side has slipped down, or the south side has Dim ed tip, in response to the ever-varying conditions of stress and st rain existing in the earth's crust. Such an adjustment invariably makes a considerable jar in the crust, which we on the surface feet it, an earthquake. The plain, at this level terminates just beyond x%licre the road crosses the Old Swamp Ri~er, and is succeeded by a similar plain at a higher level. One or two ledges of granite outcrop here, but the rock is much weathered, and its characteristics obscured. Mr. Fearing has related to me the finding of large Ineces of stag built into the stone walls near the site of the old tannery oil the old Palitter Loud place. Whether or not there was ever it furnace here I have not been able to find out, but the situation is right for the finding of bog iron ore. When we ascend the rise just beyond the river, there is a view well worth looking at off to the left. Below is a fertile meadow at the level of the river, or sliglitly above it; beyond this is the wide expanse of swamp on both sides of the river; and still further over we can see the craggy cliffs of "Tire Rocks" as they overlook the river. I have seen no higher cliffs than these in Weymouth, They are of solid granite.

At the Pratt Schoolhouse we see one of the most interesting ledges in the whole town. The main rock of the ]edge is well shown in fresh4- blasted portion abutting oil the sidewalk. It is a rather dark granite very rich in hornblende and both pink and green inkt(cline feldspar. Oil the top, especially where the rock has bcon N%cathered tough ' there are long crystals of hornblende visible, x0lich in places are almost all inch in length. Pyrite is not on(Inaillon in the granite as very small cubes ' and indeed it also o(( I It's it, the diorite inclusions; it is usually covered by a dark homn riet. Most Of (Ile small rusty patches oil the surface of the lcdge.liave a small crystal of pyrite in their centers. The granite ("Otlin's it great many- inclusions of diorite, for the inost part less than ix inches across and of a very fine grain. Numerous veins 'If cpid(te shoot through tile rock in all directions, and sometimes

152 THE' GEOLOGY OF WEYMOUTH

sand recently. This lies to the west of the railroad, but is con
tinned eastward across the railroad and may be seen to very good
advantage in a cut in East Street less than a quarter of a mile
from the crossing. A deep gravel pit has been dug into the esker
here, but one may still see the sharp hog-back crest rising steeply
northeastward. I know of no more typical esker than this in the
whole region. It bends to the north in a few hundred feet, and
from 1, 'ast Street its level top can be seen extending for about half
a mile, when it suddenly drops down almost to sea level where a
brook draining a low meadow flows out into the Back River, to
be continued again northward into the great complex of eskers and
kames which borders the Back River. From here until East Street
runs into North Street at Weymouth Heights we get changing
views of the great drundin King Oak Hill. Midway between
Union Avenue and Weymouth Heights we pass between the drumlin
on the left and a lobate delta front on the right, precisely similar to
the one above the Old Swamp River at Mosquito Plain. There
are one or two cuts in the railroad along the base of the drumlin,
showing both granite and slate.

Norton Street. - When we cross North Street on to Norton Street a good view unfolds itself on our left. In the distance is the railroad cut at White's Neck where the quartz veins are to be found; to the right of the cut is the hill now known as Idlewell, probably a kame. North of the cut a few outcrops of granite can be seen on the hills beyond the slate area. In the foreground is the marshy lowland bordering a cove of the Fore River. The road soon passes through a very deep cut in an esker, upon which Old North Cemetery is located. Scattered outcrops of granite occur on the east, but when we descend a slight grade to the junction of Norton and Pearl Streets we come to a small outcrop of purple slate, with a minor amount of gray sandstone. This is the area of the Lower Cambrian slates of Mill Cove, described on page 131.

Pearl Street. -A short walk along Pearl Street to the east of Norton Street brings us to the fossiliferous outcrop. The main mass of the slates may best be studied by taking the path which leaves Pearl Street on the west just after crossing Phillips' Creek. The remainder of Pearl Street and all the roads surrounding Thomas Corner are on a sand plain.

Neck Street. - Crossing this sand plain and going north on Neck Street, it is at once apparent that the all-pervading element in the scenery along this street is Weymouth Great Hill, whose huge bulk is a landmark for miles around. The road passes along the steel) easterly side of the drumlin, too close for us to appreciate fully the perfection of its form. Rose Cliff and tue adjoining hills are drundins, too, though neither so large nor so perfect in form as Great Hill, and also somewhat obscured by deposits of modified drift or) their flanks. Upper Neck is a low drumlin, and Lower Neck a sand and gravel spit, built out into the harbor by the waves from &bris worn from the Upper Neck drumlin. Bradley's stands




upon a gravel bar connecting the Rose Cliff hills with Upper Neck, probably made when the ocean was at a slightly higher lex el.

North Street. - Returning we will follow Neck Street to North Street. After crossing Bridge Street a wide diversity of scenery presents itself. Immediately on our right is the Thomas Corner sand plain, so close that it can scarcely be appreciated. Off on the left is the flat fertile meadow which in previous years, at least, ~,ieldecl three crops of hay each year. Looking eastward to Green Street, the hill on the extreme left is a drundin; south of that is a ,ciies of kames and eskers which borders the Back River. Off to the south of Neck Street there is plainly visible in the distance the high steep slope of an ice contact and the level top of the outwash plain on its summit. Beyond this level top is the lobate delta front above East Street. Then traveling south on North Street we pass through an esker at the Old North Cemetery, the same one, of course, through which Norton Street cuts a short distance tothe west. The quickest way back to Weymouth Landing is by Commercial Street direct. This gives us a chance to inspect the cut at White's Neck, and to study the slates and the quartz veins there. An alternative route is by Commercial (southward), Middle and Broad Streets to Lincoln Square. By this route we get a better view of King Oak Hill, up whose flank the road takes us, and we can also see the fine dike at Central Square.




With the exception of the quartz veins in the White's Neck cut XN eymouth has no mineral deposit in quantity or in quality sufficient to attract collectors. Our minerals may be separated into two groups,-cme containing minerals which are characteristic of \cins, and another minerals which are diffused through the granite and other igneous rocks generally as small grains.



(uartz. - Quartz is the commonest of all vein minerals, if not 1he commonest mineral of all types. It is white, hard and breaks with a very sharp edge. When it is transparent it resembles window glass in many of its properties. Scarcely any rock ledge in this IoNx n is free from quartz veins, - fissures which have been filled b% solutions of this mineral in times past. The most notable k viniples of this formation is the series of quartz veins in the cut ,11 \\hite', Neck.

Chloritc. -A soft green mineral, which occurs in connection mili 1he quartz in the cut at White's Neck. It occurs either as a 11,ft filling of cavities, or as cloudy inclusions within the quartz ltona~ite. - This mineral can scarcely be called a characteristic

154 TlIF` GE-OLOGY OF WEVINIOUTH

We~niointh mineral, since but one small crystal of it has been found here. This comes from the same cut, and is in the possession of Mr. Fearing.

P - critc. The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrites, is the commonest
metallic roincial, and being frequently mistaken for gold has earned
the name of Fool's Gold. It occurs as veins in the aplite on Wash
ington Street, and small crystals have been seen from the quartz
veins at White's Neck.

Epidole. - A hard green mineral which is abundant in the slates at Mill Cove and Pearl Street, both as veins, and as the filling of the cavities in the slates. It is also common in veins in the granite.

Cah:ite. - Unknown as crystals from Weymouth, but it makes up the beds of limestone at Mill Cove, and also (lie filling of some of the cavities in the slates there.

Limanite, - This is the mineral which makes the rusty stain oil our rocks- In fact, it is identical with iron rust. The beauty of the seam-face granite depends directly upon this otherwise disfiguring mineral. Most of the quartz crystals from the veins are covered by limonite; in this case, as in the case of the seani-face granite, the limonite is the result of the weathering of the mineral pyrite, which is extremely rich in iron. Limonite also makes up the beds of bog iron ore (see page 144).



Quartz. - Quartz is an essential mineral of all granites. It seldom occurs in granites in large grains, but usually in grains no larger than peas. It can be identified by its glassy appearance.

Feldspar. - Feldspars of various kinds occur in both the granites and the diorites, and also in the.dikes. The common feldspar in the granites is orthoclase, which is usually white, though sometimes pink or greenish. The diorite contains a plagioclase feldspar, though in such small grains that it is very hard to see them. The porphyritic dike, described on page 140, contains large crystals of a plagioclase feldspar known as

Hornblende. - Most of the granites contain hornblende; it is the black mineral which is scattered through the rock. Care should be taken not to confuse hornblende with another black mineral, biotite. The latter is flaky, and can easily be scratched with a knife, or separated into layers, whereas horribleride cannot. It occurs also as thin needles in the diorite.

Jluscoz-iie. -- White mica. This is found only sparingly in Weymonth. As far as I know, it occurs only as small scales in the aplite.

Biolite. - Some of the granites are characterized by the presence of the mineral biotite instead of hornblende. On West Street the granite contained biodite crystals half an inch or more acro,,. These were e~posed during some blasting eight years ago.




A Polite ' I ilanile and Zircon. --These three minerals are all
inescil( in granite, but in microscopical grains. Zircon can oc-
(asionally be seen with the naked eye, especially from the dark
granite at the crest of the hill west of Lovell's Corner on Washington
Street. It occurs in small honey-colored grains.


For the information of those who wish to learn further of the
G.cology of Weymouth the following list of works is appended.


6 R kIMOND, P. E. The Genera of the Ecidiscid.e. Ottawa Naturalist.


All of the above references may be consulted in the Boston
I'ubliC Library, or in the Library of the Museum of Comparative
Zoology at Harvard. It is understood that the United States
Geological Survey has in preparation a Folio of the Boston Region,
which when published will doubtless contain references to the
geology of at least the northern part of the town.


The Weymouth Sphinx is the name that has been given to a notable facial mitline to be seen upon the celebrated glacial boulder between Essex and Middle Streets, Weymouth, Mass., known as "I louse Rock," and the following verses are offered for pfdIfica~ tion at the repeated request of some of those who have heard or read them. -- JOHN J. LoUri.


M Y DEAR MR. LOUD: - I was very much interested in your letter that came vesterday. it is more than an interesting fact that you have discovered -it i, irniarkable. I our anxious to know if the face can be as distinctly seen with (lie noted eye, as with the photographic condensation. It must be, of course, that the profile would appear to the greatest advantage at certain times of the dav when the lights and shades are right. Have you ascertained what thesis times are? Lines the face luck north or east, or what is the direction? Would the photo, graph suffer an enlargement without lessening the illusion?

I have written some lines upon the subject, as you requested, and have dre,,sed [lie facts up in an imaginative imagery, suniewhat in the manner of Dr. Holmes'

Broomstick Train," or his legend of the Roxbury Pudding Stone.

It werned a pleasant thought to associate this "Lady of the Fields" with the "Old Man of the Mountain" and to describe the contending forces of heat and cold in tire prehistoric glacial and thermal changes, as a battle in the mountains and tire clouds. If it pleases you, and seems worth while, it might he of interest it) print it in the "Gazette," with a reproduction of orient the best photographs. I In with it as you judge best.




The president of the Weymouth Historical Society, Mr. J. J. Loud, in 1893, made the interesting discovery. He had asked one of his sons to photograph for him the great glacial boulder on 1, , ssex Street, and one of the photographs revealed what had probibly hitherto been unnoticed, - a great face in the rock. Later photographs taken for the purpose showed it with still greater dislinctriess. It will be seen from the cut above to be a strong Womanly lace, and some seem to see in it a decided resemblance to Queen Victoria.

It is easy to imagine the great bulk behind the face, as in the l.-g,vptian sphinx, to be the visible portion of a partly buried lion.

I'lle sphinx of Egypt is about five thousand years old. It was irved in the earliest dynasty of those kings who are known as the 1r,mmid builders. It is curious to meditate on what must be a Lit 1, that this newly discovered sphinx, a carving by natural forces, i, a thousand thousand years still older, for it came here in the glacial period which scientists have estimated was several millions

Ncars ago. If such a fact seems incredible, read some of the


l5s IIIF (;E'0l,0GN 01; WEVINiOll'I'll

late %rork~ oil the glaciers, su(h as Professor Wright's, on "The Ice Age (if Noith Anierica."
This rock is igneous, or fire rock, like the rnountain6 themselves %xhich were largely formed and upheaved by volcanic fires. This pet-Illiar variety of rock has been identified as belonging to scurne of the White Mounitain rock of New Harripshire, so that this great stone, perhaps torn front a mountain cliff by the ice sea, rnay have made quite a long journey oil the back of the glacier before it found its present resting place.



(A Parable of the SpIlinx-like Glacial Boulder in the Weymouth tields.)

Five thousand years ago oil Egypt's sands A nionarch of the earliest dynasty Gave haughty orders to his myriarl slaves To %,arm about a massive block of stone And, with the clanging might of arm and iron Carve out a royal image in the rock.
The royal word was law. The slaves Obeyed.
Year after year the desert heard the sound,
Tire dull and ceaseless clinking on the stone.
Slaves died aml slaves were born. But still tire sigh
And groan of chisel and the hiss of scourge
Were wrought into the patient mass of stone,
And forth there came a marvel to the world
· roval image in the royal stone,
· woman's face upon a lion's form,
· suffering patience in surpassing strength, Ali image that should breast the shocks of time. Arid rest eternal in tire whirling sands.
· seer if the niy~teries of life,
· holder of the secrets of the (lead,
· guardian of those royal pyramids, The tombs of swarthy Cheops and his race. BUt What of this, another rocI-wrought Sphinx, Ruder in image for a western world, This woman's face and lion's shaggy form That rests in massive strength in Weymouth Fields?
Take ladder, climb tire mighty granite breast,
And stand on tiptoe till thou touch the face;
I to](] How thy patient ear close to the mouth, -
That mouth of stone that seems to whisper forth
The silent eloquence of all tire past -
Something Of this, per, han'e, ay come t" tire,
A hundred thousand centin its earlier
Than Egypt's sphinx was born, of myriad slaves,
(NN'liat iche of thought is in this stretch of time)
The mystic monsters of tire reaho Of Fire
That ~warro ithin the niolte. depths of earth -
Black, sa% e the whirl of heavy fiery glow, -
lhol burst their prison with volcanic rage,
And made themselves a kingdom in the light,
Had reared with massive force and niaster-skill
A lofty castle, giouped (if inountain heights,
Resplendent in tire gleam of precious stones.
Fine wrought within their forges' -!,~nlloering beat.
This nlas~i%v (astle, towered Nvith inany summits,

Should be the fortress of the race of Fire And lord it over all the realms of earth. The race of Fire was jubilant in strength; Their inyriarls wrought their tasks unseen, u . heard; They winged their flight in vapors of the air, Or grovelled in the rallten depths of earth; Arid her, ithin their stronghold of the mountains, With eager hoinage and supreme devotion, I lie), throned aloft a noble king and queen, Born of themselves, and of the niountain granite That they hall wedded in a fiery love. Splendid and noble were the king and queen Arid held high revel in the lofty halls Whose many turrets pierced the roofing sky. They showed their granite birth by massive forms. Royal in feature and of royal calm, A;nI yet from out tire eye, there seemed to glow T e glory of their flaming hearts of fire, Ar ~d when lie looked with kingly grace toward her, it seemed as if his eyes were purpling sunrise That found in bets a sunset, crinison-gold. Thus were the sovereigns of the realm of Fire Who dwelt in glory in the mountain heights.

Cycles of ages passed. The myrmidons, Who wrought the magic of tire realm of Fire, Had filled the changeful earth with wond,,ae, deed,. And still supreme within their mountain halls. Iligh-throned, reposed the sovereigns of the File. The sweet son kissed the blushing mountain-inist And gave them aureole crowns of rainbow light; Tire strong-winged winds took up their mountain-harps And sang the glories of the realm of Fire, - They lauded high their noble King and Oueen, They shouted of their po.ens and their might, With harp and voice they gave a sovereign blast, Arid roared defiant challenge to the world.

Sudden outpealed the trumpets of the north, Distant at first, but louder now and fierce. The challenge had its answer. Arid a host, 'That long with ein ious eyes had seen aloft The inountain-trowers and flaming flags of light, Bore down upon them hour the frozen seas. Onward they came in glittering array, The serried armics of the realuis of Frok. Ctad in the heaping snows they marclied, With %aving banner, of the ice-cold mists, With spears and aXCS Of great icicles, With mighty (annonade of giant hail. Forth trenibled as tire comitle,s ]lost (arile oil, The mountains shivered as tire icy hordes ( load, its steel, sides and stornied the castle walls, And when, with front unchecked, they net The red-hot wernis that from the castle rushed, I hen all the an- grew thick in vaporous clood There, where the fierve primordial passions strove Anil stormy wagerl the elemental war.
Sudden from lofty towers or mountain peaks A thousand bolts of lightning hurled themselves, ~\Jld loud (be thunders roared from beigHt to height.
Long long was taught that battle in the clouds, And at the last the myrmidons of Frost, 'File countless icy hordes from out the north, Had conquered, and the vanquished hosts of Fire [lad fied far South in desperate confusion, Or sought again file molten deptlis of earth. Ail [lot the king and queen, - too great for flight And born of fire and granite on the earth, The hidden fiery depths were not for them - Two royal captives in their royal halls. 'File. hosts of Frost in savage mockery, Fast to a frowning cliff with mystic chains, Enslaved the grand old king of fiery hosts. A prisoner forever in those halls Where lie ]lad ruled and revelled ages long. And as he saw the fulness of his shame, The glorious light outfaded from his eyes, Arid all his face was passionless and cold, just as the granite that around him closed. They shouted as they Saw his silent woe. See, the triumphant standards of the snow Still to this day are waving on the heights, Alit] gone all trace of halls and hosts of Fire. Cold are the mountains now and called in truth White Mountains, and one sees tire priscured King "The Old Man of the Mountains," named of men.

They shouted as they left him in his woe. They shouted rr~ they siela~d his noble queen, Who ' like her lord, was stricken still and cold, And tore her fiercely front his lonely side. Aloft they bore her on their myriad arms Down the steep mountain patles and to the plains. With glittering spears of ice in triumph raised, 0. with resistless might and hoarKst shouts, They bore her, captive in their icy arms; At last they balled and encircling round, Thev loosed her, and she rested, great and calm, Hem in the fertile stretch of Weymouth fields Here within hearing of the murinorous sea. But now in the low Surges of the sea, They heard the deep defiance of new foes, And leaving in the fields the royal queen, In captive chains of mystic witchery, Onward they rushed and all the countless host Forever vanished in the engulfing seas.

And here upon the lowly Weymouth Fields She sits in exile, proud and nobly calm, A granite queen, an elder mightier Sphinx, The mystic spell still broods upon her brow An~l never only she seek her momrr-.~n E,ivhts Wl ere mourns in solitude her royal lord. But here she sits in silent wonderment: * seer of the western inarch of empire, * holder of the hopes, of sunrise born, * guardian, not of deserts, but of life, And called of inen, "Tire Lady of the Fields."



Men call thee "The Sphinx!" 0, bowider gigantic!

Wen thou wrought by Same giant in rage fierce and frantic


Men call thee "An Alien!" 0 wand'rer erratic!

Perhaps from Some mountain of grandeur emphatic


These Kars on the face and these cuts and these searraings

But patient forever in wonderful drearnings


How strange was the world! What marvellous changes!

Till glacier-bound vales and ice-glittering ranges


Then the gay flowers were fragrant and blooming so fairily.

And the insects and bees and the birds sang Sol merrily


Then later the red man - fantastic and Savage,

He held thee for Some dread mysterious image


Still later the white men from far o'er the waters,

And here 'neath thy shadow reared brave sons and daughters


But thou speakest never - what e'er the world sayeth.

No motion or word thy dark secret betrayeth



EAST BRAINTREE, MASS.





While geologic cycles rolled And earth was ploughed by glaciers cold, On mammoth ice-craft. pond'rous load, A mighty Sphinx to Weymouth rode. Where Mastodon and M&gathAre Prowled hungry from each horrid tair Serene she Rat nor deigned one look To beast or reptile. But the book Of Fate and Prophecy she read With steadfast eye and upraised head. And here she sat and here her face Prefigured Adam's unborn rare Ere yet for man the earth was fit.


Grown gray with years she watched alone, -
A peerless Sphinx of howlder stone, -
While puny man with drill and wedge
Wrought sister-shape front Egypt's ledge.
The sunrise Song of Memnon a lyre,
The blithesome trills of feathered choir.
The war-whoop shrill from ambush line,
She noted all but gave no sign.
Still undismayed she reigns, a Queen,
While empires rock and thrones careen;
Nor anarchist nor crank she fears
Nor reason finds for smiles or tears
She simply sits and waits. -JoHN J. Loco.



Leave the Braintree and East Weymouth electric at the corner of Essex and Broad Streets; walk along Essex Street toward the south and soon the top of the great bouicier will b2 seen, not unlike the roof of a house, rising from the field on the left.

Having reached the site, station yourself between the barbed wire fence and the rock, opposite the center of the latter and as near to the fence as the trees will conveniently allow.

Follow along the fence toward the east, watching the easterly end of the great boulder and you will see the profile growing into shape.

When the breast begins to detach itself from the neck you will see a bolder face perhaps but a less perfect profile. Generally tire face shown herewith will be accepted as the more satisfactory.